A 6-CD set containing several Linux distributions (Slackware, RedHat, GNU), plus images of the main Linux FTP sites, is available from Infomagic for around $25 + shipping.
Updated packages can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/redhat-4.1/updates/i386/ or one of its mirror sites
d: (or whatever drive letter represents your CD-ROM) cd \images ..\dosutils\rawrite Enter disk image source file name: boot.img Enter target diskette drive: aThen boot your system with this floppy in drive A. You can also create this disk on another Linux system, by using "dd if=boot.img of=/dev/fd0"
If you are installing to a laptop using a PCMCIA peripheral (e.g. PCMCIA SCSI or PCMCIA ethernet card) you will also require a supplementary floppy disk, made from supp.img in the same way.
You will then enter the menu-driven install procedure, which is very straightforward to follow. Use TAB or SHIFT-TAB to move between areas on the screen, and hit ENTER to select an option. Use cursor up and cursor down to select between items in a list. To select or deselect an item with a checkbox [ ] hit the space bar.
This will put you into the fdisk program; see the sample session for details of how to use it. Make sure you create at least one swap partition and one Linux partition.
Next you will be asked which partition you want to use for your root Linux partition. Select it and hit OK. If there are other (non-swap) partitions on your hard disk, you will be given the option to give mount points for them so they will be automatically mounted on system bootup - for example, if you have a windows partition it could be mounted under /windows
You will then be asked which partition(s) to initialise. This is the equivalent of a DOS "format c:" - it erases all files and creates a fresh, ext2 (Linux) filesystem. You should enable this for all your Linux partitions. If this is a brand new disk, it's a good idea to turn on the bad block check - this makes the initialisation rather slower though.
If you check "Select individual packages" you can then choose the precise set of packages you wish to install. This allows you to add some extra ones now, saving you having to do it later after the system reboots. Here are some I suggest:
For all machines: joe (Applications/Editors) - powerful and easy to use editor For a network server: bind (Networking) - name server imap (Networking) - POP and IMAP servers pidentd (Networking) - identity daemon for keeping track of users caching-nameserver (System) - config files for bind getty_ps (Utilities/System) - for dial-in modem access ipfwadm (Utilities/System) - for firewall and IP masquerading config If you wish to build your own sendmail.cf configurations: sendmail-cf (Daemons) pmake (Development/Building) m4 (Utilities/Text) Other useful packages: fetchmail (Applications/Mail) - POP client aout-libs (Libraries) - if you want to be able to run programs built on old Linux systems fwhois (Networking/Utilities) - whois client traceroute (Networking/Utilities) - useful for IP debugging unzip (Utilities/Archiving) - access .zip archives zip (Utilities/Archiving) - create .zip archives mtools (Utilities/File) - easy access to MSDOS floppy disks sharutils (Utilities/File) - includes uuencode and uudecodeIf you wish to build your own kernel, also include 'kernel-source' from Base/Kernel.
Once you hit the final 'OK', the install procedure will run automatically: this includes initialising hard disk partitions and copying in packages.
There are two places you can install LILO: in the Master Boot Record, or in the Linux partition itself. I suggest you choose as follows:
You can do this after the installation is complete by running your DOS or Windows fdisk program. For example, if your DOS/Windows partition is /dev/hda1 and your Linux root partition is /dev/hda3, fdisk will show that the active boot partition is /dev/hda1. Change this to /dev/hda3, and the next time you reboot, LILO will be activated.
Later, if you want to disable LILO on your machine, you can just toggle the flags back again (using either DOS or Linux fdisk). This approach also has the advantage that if you install a new operating system, say reinstall Windows 95, it may overwrite the MBR - but by putting LILO in the Linux data partition, it will remain intact.
loadlin vmlinuz root=/dev/hda3(or whatever is your root linux partition)
After first installing you will only be able to boot into Linux. If you want to be able to choose other operating systems you will need to edit /etc/lilo.conf (e.g. joe /etc/lilo.conf) and add some extra lines at the end:
other=/dev/hda1 label=win95 table=/dev/hdaSave this file, then type lilo at the Unix command prompt. This will reinstall LILO and list the choices available. If any errors occur you will be told about them; you need to fix /etc/lilo.conf and run lilo again.
adduser fred passwd fred chfn fredUse 'finger fred' to see if the information has been set up properly.
... # From: Eric S. Raymond <firstname.lastname@example.org> 9 Nov 1995 linux|linux console:\ :am:eo:mi:ms:ut:xn:xo:\ :co#80:it#8:li#25:\ :so=\E[7m:se=\E[27m:us=\E[36m:ue=\E[m:kH=\E[4~:\ :&7=^Z:@7=\E[4~:AL=\E[%dL:DC=\E[%dP:DL=\E[%dM:\ :F1=\E[23~:F2=\E[24~:F3=\E[25~:F4=\E[26~:F5=\E[28~:\ ...
# Enable colour displays for ls and minicom alias ls='ls -F --color=tty' eval $(/usr/bin/dircolors) export MINICOM='-c on' # Modify behaviour of 'less' for verbose prompting and # case-insensitive searching export LESS='-Mi' # Display a random fortune (only if you installed the 'fortune' program) echo /usr/games/fortune echo
PS1='\h:\w\$ 'BEWARE! When changing login scripts /etc/profile and /etc/bashrc, if you make a mistake it is possible that you will lock yourself entirely out of the system. So you should always test your changes by switching to another virtual console (Alt-F2, Alt-F3...) and logging in again there, before you log out of the current console.
# User specific aliases and functions alias rm='rm -i' alias cp='cp -i' alias mv='mv -i'If you want this to be done for all new user accounts when they are created, edit /etc/skel/.bashrc. Files in /etc/skel are copied into the home directory every time a new account is created.
echo -n "Starting system loggers: " daemon syslogd daemon klogd -c4
rpm -qa List all installed packages (Query All) rpm -qi wu-ftpd Show information about installed package 'wu-ftpd' rpm -ql wu-ftpd List all files in installed package 'wu-ftpd' rpm -qf /home/ftp Show which package owns the specified file rpm -e wu-ftpd Remove (erase) package 'wu-ftpd'Installable packages have filenames like this:
<packagename>-<version>-<release>.i386.rpmOnce you have one of these packages, e.g. on a CD-ROM or downloaded from the Internet, it is very easy to install:
rpm -Uvh joe-2.8-7.i386.rpm Install or update the given package (Update, verbose, show hashes)Any previous version of the package is uninstalled first. Note that if there is only one file in the current directory beginning with the string 'joe', then you can use 'joe*' instead of the full filename.
When updating, if there is any conflict between an existing configuration file and one in the package being installed, the existing file will be renamed with the extension ".rpmsave" - it is then up to you to resolve the differences between the old and new configuration files. You will also be told if a package "depends" on files in another package, in which case you will have to install the relevant package(s) first.
You can query a package even before you install it, by using commands -qpi and -qpl instead of -qi and -ql:
rpm -qpi joe-2.8-7.i386.rpm Show information about package rpm -qpl joe-2.8-7.i386.rpm Show files contained in packageFinally, it is possible to install packages directly over FTP, simply by giving a URL instead of the filename. For example:
(Anonymous) rpm -Uvh ftp://ftp.my.domain/pub/contrib/RPMS/squid-1.1.10-1.i386.rpm (Specific account - will prompt for password) rpm -Uvh ftp://email@example.com/home/user/somefile.rpmThis is best used only when the ftp server is local and you have a high-speed connection. If the package is on the Internet it is almost certainly better to ftp the file first; this gives you the opportunity to restart the transfer if the connection drops.
For more information, see the RPM-Tips and RPM-HOWTO documents.
It is possible to use the Red Hat boot disk as a 'rescue' disk, by typing 'rescue' at the boot prompt. It will ask you the usual questions about whether you need PCMCIA or SCSI support, but instead of continuing with the installation program it will drop out to a shell prompt.
Unfortunately the range of commands is very limited at this point. You can mount filesystems, as long as you give the device name without the /dev prefix. (There are no entries in /dev, but the version of mount on the rescue disk can create and use temporary devices under /tmp)
mkdir /c mount -t ext2 hda1 /cThere is no 'cp' and not even an editor. You can create a floppy disk containing some basic utility programs, mount the disk, and use them. However you can't use editors such as 'joe' or 'vi' because these require display libraries which are not available on the rescue disk. Your best bet is to copy /bin/cp to a floppy disk, and use it to copy the offending file to floppy:
mkdir /a mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /a /a/cp /c/etc/passwd /a umount /aThen you can take this disk to another machine, edit the file, and reverse the process to copy it back again. (It's best to edit the file on another Linux machine; DOS editors tend to put CR/LF sequences at the end of each line which will confuse Unix)
This is very awkward and best left to Unix gurus. Slackware is much better in this respect: its 'rescue' disk includes a full set of basic utilities, including 'vi'.